Sunday, 11 October 2020

Nightcaps, 1550-1750

1600-25. In LACMA, Los Angeles

 Nightcaps were caps worn by men informally at home, and sometimes under a hat. There are a number of portraits in which the sitter wears a nightcap under their hat. In the late sixteenth and first half of the seventeenth century survivals are often heavily embroidered, which is why they have survived. King Charles I matched his nightcaps to his informal wear waistcoats, having in 1632 “a skie cullor sattin wastcoate with one gold and silver lace in a seame lined with plush, with a nightcap suitable wrought all over in rich workes with gold and silver lace, these were incredibly expensive, this set of waistcoat and nightcap together cost £16 9s 10d. A nightcap with matching slippers, said to have belonged to Charles II when he was Prince of Wales, survives in the Burrell Collection in Glasgow. [image below] At the bottom end of the market they were considerably cheaper, in 1608 Robert Booth Esquire had stolen from him in Middlesex, “a linen night cappe worth twelve pence,” while in 1610 Thomas Cademan had stolen “a wroughte nightcappe worth ten shillings.”  

From the 1650s on they are less likely to be embroidered and more likely to be quilted or of velvet, the fashion for periwigs resulting in more shaved heads that required a warm covering. In 1698 Montague Drake, esquire, in Buckinghamshire owned “four quilted night capps” and nine periwigs. In 1682 Richard Matthew, a vicar in Devon owned 15 nightcaps, and John Dale a yeoman in Wiltshire owned two.

Links to some surviving nightcaps – organised by date.

1550-1600. Linen with blackwork and metallic thread embroidery, metallic lace and spangles. Los Angeles County Museum of Art.  https://collections.lacma.org/node/2110101

1570-1600. Linen with polychrome and gold and silver embroidery. Museum number: T.55-1947. Victoria & Albert Museum. https://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O359994/nightcap/

1570-1600. Linen embroidered with blackwork and metal threads. Accession Number: 43.251. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. https://collections.mfa.org/objects/116887

1570-1630. Linen embroidered with blackwork and metal threads, and silver gilt bobbin lace trim. Museum number: T.224-1968. Victoria & Albert Museum.  http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O359993/nightcap-unknown/

1575-1625. Linen embroidered with blackwork and silver gilt thread. Museum number: 199-1900. Victoria & Albert Museum.  https://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O357058/cap-headgear/

1575-1625. Linen with polychrome silks and metallic embroidery. Accession Number: 43.250. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.   https://collections.mfa.org/objects/116883/mans-cap

1580-1600. Linen with silver thread embroidery. Cleveland Museum of Art.    https://www.clevelandart.org/art/1950.352

1580-1620.  Linen with blackwork and metallic thread embroidery, metallic lace and spangles. Los Angeles County Museum of Art. https://collections.lacma.org/node/2092825

1580-1620. Linen, embroidered in black silk and silver gilt thread. Accession number: 2003.6. Manchester City Museums. https://manchesterartgallery.org/collections/title/?mag-object-15262

1580-1620. Linen embroidered with blackwork and metal threads. Museum number: T.140-1929. Victoria & Albert Museum.  http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O357050/cap-headgear-unknown/

c.1580. Linen with polychrome silk and metallic thread embroidery, with spangles and trimmed with metallic-thread lace. Object number: 1987.042. Museum of Art, Rhode Island School of Design. https://risdmuseum.org/art-design/collection/mans-nightcap-1987042

1590-1600. Linen cap, embroidered in black and silver-gilt. Accession number: 1959.271. Manchester City Museums. https://manchesterartgallery.org/collections/title/?mag-object-6642

1600s. Linen cap lining, with cream silk embroidery and linen lace. Accession Number 1971-50-115. Cooper Hewitt, New York https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18474003/

1600s. Linen, embroidered. Museum reference: A.1889.334. National Museums of Scotland. No image.  https://www.nms.ac.uk/explore-our-collections/collection-search-results/nightcap-mans/350817

c.1600. Linen embroidered with blackwork. Museum number: T.10-1950. Victoria & Albert Museum. https://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O357668/nightcap/

c.1600.     Silk embroidered in silk and metallic yarns, in rainbows design. Museum number: 1962-53-11. Cooper Hewitt, New York. https://www.cooperhewitt.org/2014/02/12/a-little-nightcap/

c.1600. Uncut and part blackwork embroidered nightcap. Museum number: T.9-1950. Victoria & Albert Museum.   https://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O319540/nightcap-panel/


1600-1620. Linen embroidered with black silk and silver-gilt threads. ID Number: 29.132 Burrell collection, Glasgow Museums. (image right) http://collections.glasgowmuseums.com/mwebcgi/mweb?request=record;id=37367;type=101

1600-1620. Linen embroidered with polychrome silk and silver-gilt threads. ID Number:  29.135. Burrell collection, Glasgow Museums. http://collections.glasgowmuseums.com/mwebcgi/mweb?request=record;id=37485;type=101

1600-1620. Linen embroidered with black silk and silver-gilt threads. ID Number: 29.136. Burrell collection, Glasgow Museums. http://collections.glasgowmuseums.com/mwebcgi/mweb?request=record;id=36682;type=101

1600-20. Linen worked with silk and metal threads, and spangles. Accession Number: 64.101.1241. Metropolitan Museum, New York. https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/228950?searchField=All&sortBy=Relevance&ft=64.101.1241&offset=0&rpp=20&pos=1

1600-25. Linen embroidered with polychrome silk and silver-gilt threads. Shakespeare’s Birthplace Trust. http://collections.shakespeare.org.uk/search/museum/strst-sbt-1994-70

1600-25. Linen embroidered with polychrome silk and metallic threads. Los Angeles County Museum of Art. https://collections.lacma.org/node/250323

1600-25. Linen with polychrome and gold and silver embroidery of strawberries, with spangles and silver gilt bobbin lace trim. Museum number: 2016-1899. Victoria & Albert Museum. http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O15344/nightcap-unknown/

1600-25. Linen embroidered with blackwork and silver gilt. Museum number: 198-1900. Victoria & Albert Museum. http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O72529/nightcap-unknown/

1600-25. Linen, embroidered with polychrome and silver-gilt thread with silver-gilt bobbin lace & spangles. Museum number: T.258-1926. Victoria & Albert Museum. http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O73335/nightcap-unknown/

1600-25. Linen, embroidered with silver and silver-gilt thread with silver-gilt bobbin lace & spangles. Museum number: T.75-1954. Victoria & Albert Museum. http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O357046/cap-unknown/

1600-1625. Linen, embroidered mainly in silver and silver gilt thread, with pink, green and gold silk thread. Accession number: 1971.50. Manchester City Museums. https://manchesterartgallery.org/collections/title/?mag-object-7423

1600-1625. Linen, embroidered in black, silk and silver gilt. Accession number: 1972.113. Manchester City Museums. https://manchesterartgallery.org/collections/title/?mag-object-7435

1600-25. Linen embroidered in plaited braids of silver and silver-gilt thread, trimmed with silver-gilt bobbin lace, and with spangles. ID number 42.51. Museum of London. https://collections.museumoflondon.org.uk/online/object/90475.html

1600-25. Linen embroidered in polychrome silks, and silver and silver-gilt thread. ID number 27.117. Museum of London. https://collections.museumoflondon.org.uk/online/object/90472.html

1600-1630. Linen with wide border of needlepoint lace seamed to lower edge. Accession number: 2003.85. Manchester City Museums. https://manchesterartgallery.org/collections/title/?mag-object-14672

1600-30 Linen lining, said to have been worn by Charles I, plain with cutwork or needle-lace trim. ID number: 35.147/3. Museum of London. https://collections.museumoflondon.org.uk/online/object/91437.html

1600-30. Linen embroidered with blackwork. Museum number: 308-1902. Victoria & Albert Museum.  http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O357057/cap-unknown/

1600-30. Linen embroidered with blackwork. Museum number: 1032-1903. Victoria & Albert Museum. https://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O357056/cap-headgear/

1600-1630. Linen embroidered with silver and silver-gilt thread with spangles. Museum number: T15-1925. Victoria & Albert Museum.http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O357052/cap-headgear-unknown/

1600-30. Linen, embroidered with polychrome and silver-gilt thread. Museum number: T.16-1925. Victoria & Albert Museum. https://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O357051/cap-headgear/

1600-1630. Linen, embroidered with black silk, gold thread and gilt spangles. Museum number: 814-1891. Victoria & Albert Museum. http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O357060/cap-headgear-unknown/

1600-30. Linen, embroidered with black silk (almost completely missing) and silver-gilt thread. Museum number: 795-1892. Victoria & Albert Museum. https://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O357059/cap-headgear/

1600-30. Linen, embroidered with green and yellow silk, gilt thread, and green ribbon.  Museum number: T.56-1934. Victoria & Albert Museum. https://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O357047/cap-headgear/

1610-20. Linen, embroidered with silks, silver metal thread and spangles.  Chertsey Museum. https://chertseymuseum.org/search_collection?filter=nightcap&item=14092

1610-20. Linen, polychrome silk and metal threads. Fashion Museum, Bath. The Fashion Museum does not have an online search facility. The nightcap is on their Facebook page

c.1620. Uncut and part polychrome embroidered nightcap. Museum number: T.39-1955.Victoria & Albert Museum. http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O357612/nightcap-unknown/

c.1620. Linen, polychrome silk and metal threads. Sold at Bonhams. https://www.bonhams.com/auctions/24678/lot/139/?category=list

1640-45. Pink silk satin embroidered in silk, silver and silver-gilt threads, with matching slippers (29.144-145). ID Number: 29.133. Burrell collection, Glasgow Museums. (shown left) http://collections.glasgowmuseums.com/mwebcgi/mweb?request=record;id=37208;type=101

1640-60. Red velvet embroidered in metal threads. ID Number: 29.315. Burrell collection, Glasgow Museums. http://collections.glasgowmuseums.com/mwebcgi/mweb?request=record;id=447014;type=101

1650-60.  Quilted white satin. Museum number: 786-1864. Victoria & Albert Museum. https://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O357061/cap-headgear/

1675–1725. Green silk velvet embroidered with gold-metallic thread. Accession Number: 38.1298. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. https://collections.mfa.org/objects/46601/mans-negligee-cap

1675–1725. Light brown silk, embroidered with silks and metallic thread. Accession Number: 38.1308. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. https://collections.mfa.org/objects/46615/mans-cap

1675-1700. Linen in the chinoiserie style, embroidered in black, red, pink and yellow silk, turned up, peaked brim, lined yellow silk and bound with yellow silk ribbon. Accession number: 1952.123. Manchester City Museums. https://manchesterartgallery.org/collections/title/?mag-object-5833

1675-1700. Linen in the chinoiserie style, embroidered in yellow silk, turned up, peaked brim, unlined. Accession number: 2012.82. Manchester City Museums. https://manchesterartgallery.org/collections/title/?mag-object-5833

1675-1700. Linen, embroidered with silk (note museum dating of first quarter 17th century is wrong). Accession Number: 39.145. Metropolitan Museum, New York. https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/101826?searchField=All&sortBy=Relevance&deptids=62%7c8&when=A.D.+1600-1800&what=Costume&ft=cap&offset=20&rpp=20&pos=22

1680-1700. Quilted linen. Object number: NT 1348925. National Trust, Snowshill. http://www.nationaltrustcollections.org.uk/object/1348925

1680-1720. Linen, embroidered over entire surface with yellow silk and coloured silks, lined with blue silk, blue silk turned-back brim trimmed with silver bobbin lace. Accession number: 2003.108. Manchester City Museums. https://manchesterartgallery.org/collections/title/?mag-object-14671

1680-1720. Linen, cotton, with silk embroidery. Accession Number 1951-105-32. Cooper Hewitt Collection, New York. https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18386589/

1680-1720. Cream silk embroidered cross stitch in green silk. Accession Number: 26.231.8. Metropolitan Museum, New York. https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/98367?searchField=All&sortBy=Relevance&deptids=62%7c8&when=A.D.+1600-1800&what=Costume&ft=cap&offset=0&rpp=20&pos=2

1690-1700. Scarlet velvet embroidered in silver and silver gilt, with a spilt point brim. Museum number: T.95-1967. Victoria & Albert Museum. http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O353236/nightcap-unknown/

1700-60. Quilted linen. National Trust, Snowshill. http://www.nationaltrustcollections.org.uk/object/1348924

1700-50. Green silk embroidered in silk. Accession Number: C.I.46.9.224. Metropolitan Museum, New York. (image left) https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/116700?searchField=All&sortBy=Relevance&deptids=62%7c8&when=A.D.+1600-1800&what=Costume&ft=cap&offset=0&rpp=20&pos=20

1700-50. Silk with embroidery. Accession Number: 43.311. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. https://collections.mfa.org/objects/116815/mans-cap

1700-50. Blue silk embroidered with straw. Accession Number: 38.1315. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. https://collections.mfa.org/objects/46627/cap

1700-50. Linen with quilting and embroidery. Accession Number: 1973.486. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.  https://collections.mfa.org/objects/123621/mans-cap

1700-50. Blue silk with silk and metallic-thread embroidery, and metallic-thread lace trim.  Los Angeles County Museum of Art.   https://collections.lacma.org/node/214537

1700-20. Blue silk, embroidered in silk. Object number: NT 1348924. National Trust, Snowshill http://www.nationaltrustcollections.org.uk/object/1348948

1700-20. Scarlet velvet embroidered in silver thread. Object number: NT 1348949. National Trust, Snowshill. http://www.nationaltrustcollections.org.uk/object/1348949

1700-20. Pink silk with metallic embroidery. Accession Number: 43.307. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.   https://collections.mfa.org/objects/116801/mans-cap

1700-20. White satin silk with embroidery. Accession Number: 38.1307. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. https://collections.mfa.org/objects/46613/cap

1700-20. Linen, Italian quilting. Museum reference: A.1979.19. National Museums of Scotland. No image. https://www.nms.ac.uk/explore-our-collections/collection-search-results/nightcap-mans/350820

1700-1725. Linen, backed by coarser linen; turned up brim. Embroidered through both layers in white linen, chiefly in satin stitch, french knots and drawn fabric work. Accession number: 1948.1. Manchester City Museums. https://manchesterartgallery.org/collections/title/?mag-object-5527

1700-1725. Red silk velvet, lined with pale blue spotted silk.  Museum number:T.44-1918, Victoria and Albert Museum.  http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O139654/nightcap-unknown/

1710. Linen with wadded and corded quilting in black.  ID Number:29.140.  Burrell collection, Glasgow Museums. http://collections.glasgowmuseums.com/mwebcgi/mweb?request=record;id=36131;type=101

c.1720. Cream silk with pink silk brim, embroidered with silk threads. Accession Number: C.I.39.13.278. Metropolitan Museum, New York. https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/112625?searchField=All&sortBy=Relevance&deptids=62%7c8&when=A.D.+1600-1800&what=Costume&ft=cap&offset=0&rpp=20&pos=17

1725-75. Cream silk with silk and metallic-thread embroidery, and metallic-thread lace trim.  Los Angeles County Museum of Art. https://collections.lacma.org/node/233262

1725-50. Green silk with silk and metallic-thread embroidery, and metallic-thread lace trim.  Los Angeles County Museum of Art. https://collections.lacma.org/node/246507

c.1730.  Green lampas (silk fabric with a brocading weft). Accession Number 1951-105-31 Cooper Hewitt Collection, New York.  https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18386587/

1740-60. Leather. Object number: NT 1348951. National Trust, Snowshill.  http://www.nationaltrustcollections.org.uk/object/1348951

1740-60. Shot green/yellow silk. Object number: NT 1348950. National Trust, Snowshill.  http://www.nationaltrustcollections.org.uk/object/1348950

1740-50. Red velvet, with turned-up brim and a tassel. Museum number: T.43-1918. Victoria & Albert Museum.  https://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O353241/nightcap/

1740-50. Pale blue silk damask, with turned-up brim and tassel. Museum number: 294-1906. Victoria & Albert Museum. https://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O353247/nightcap/

c.1750. Linen, embroidered with silk, and a silver braid edging. Accession Number: 38.1297. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. https://collections.mfa.org/objects/46598/mans-negligee-cap

1700s. Orangey-red brocaded silk. Accession Number 1952-47-2. Cooper Hewitt Collection, New York. https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18392135/

1700s. Yellow brocaded silk. Accession Number 1951-105-30. Cooper Hewitt Collection, New York. https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18386585/

1700s. Linen embroidered with cotton. Accession Number 1950-19-1. Cooper Hewitt Collection, New York. https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18392133/

1700s. Yellow embroidered silk, with metallic lace trim. Accession Number 1952-47-1. Cooper Hewitt Collection, New York. https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18384431/

1700s. Linen embroidered with whitework and with a tassel. Accession Number: 43.1696. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. https://collections.mfa.org/objects/120485/nightcap

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