Sunday, 11 October 2020

Nightcaps, 1550-1750

1600-25. In LACMA, Los Angeles

 Nightcaps were caps worn by men informally at home, and sometimes under a hat. There are a number of portraits in which the sitter wears a nightcap under their hat. In the late sixteenth and first half of the seventeenth century survivals are often heavily embroidered, which is why they have survived. King Charles I matched his nightcaps to his informal wear waistcoats, having in 1632 “a skie cullor sattin wastcoate with one gold and silver lace in a seame lined with plush, with a nightcap suitable wrought all over in rich workes with gold and silver lace, these were incredibly expensive, this set of waistcoat and nightcap together cost £16 9s 10d. A nightcap with matching slippers, said to have belonged to Charles II when he was Prince of Wales, survives in the Burrell Collection in Glasgow. [image below] At the bottom end of the market they were considerably cheaper, in 1608 Robert Booth Esquire had stolen from him in Middlesex, “a linen night cappe worth twelve pence,” while in 1610 Thomas Cademan had stolen “a wroughte nightcappe worth ten shillings.”  

From the 1650s on they are less likely to be embroidered and more likely to be quilted or of velvet, the fashion for periwigs resulting in more shaved heads that required a warm covering. In 1698 Montague Drake, esquire, in Buckinghamshire owned “four quilted night capps” and nine periwigs. In 1682 Richard Matthew, a vicar in Devon owned 15 nightcaps, and John Dale a yeoman in Wiltshire owned two.

Links to some surviving nightcaps – organised by date.

1550-1600. Linen with blackwork and metallic thread embroidery, metallic lace and spangles. Los Angeles County Museum of Art.  https://collections.lacma.org/node/2110101

1570-1600. Linen with polychrome and gold and silver embroidery. Museum number: T.55-1947. Victoria & Albert Museum. https://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O359994/nightcap/

1570-1600. Linen embroidered with blackwork and metal threads. Accession Number: 43.251. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. https://collections.mfa.org/objects/116887

1570-1630. Linen embroidered with blackwork and metal threads, and silver gilt bobbin lace trim. Museum number: T.224-1968. Victoria & Albert Museum.  http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O359993/nightcap-unknown/

1575-1625. Linen embroidered with blackwork and silver gilt thread. Museum number: 199-1900. Victoria & Albert Museum.  https://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O357058/cap-headgear/

1575-1625. Linen with polychrome silks and metallic embroidery. Accession Number: 43.250. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.   https://collections.mfa.org/objects/116883/mans-cap

1580-1600. Linen with silver thread embroidery. Cleveland Museum of Art.    https://www.clevelandart.org/art/1950.352

1580-1620.  Linen with blackwork and metallic thread embroidery, metallic lace and spangles. Los Angeles County Museum of Art. https://collections.lacma.org/node/2092825

1580-1620. Linen, embroidered in black silk and silver gilt thread. Accession number: 2003.6. Manchester City Museums. https://manchesterartgallery.org/collections/title/?mag-object-15262

1580-1620. Linen embroidered with blackwork and metal threads. Museum number: T.140-1929. Victoria & Albert Museum.  http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O357050/cap-headgear-unknown/

c.1580. Linen with polychrome silk and metallic thread embroidery, with spangles and trimmed with metallic-thread lace. Object number: 1987.042. Museum of Art, Rhode Island School of Design. https://risdmuseum.org/art-design/collection/mans-nightcap-1987042

1590-1600. Linen cap, embroidered in black and silver-gilt. Accession number: 1959.271. Manchester City Museums. https://manchesterartgallery.org/collections/title/?mag-object-6642

1600s. Linen cap lining, with cream silk embroidery and linen lace. Accession Number 1971-50-115. Cooper Hewitt, New York https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18474003/

1600s. Linen, embroidered. Museum reference: A.1889.334. National Museums of Scotland. No image.  https://www.nms.ac.uk/explore-our-collections/collection-search-results/nightcap-mans/350817

c.1600. Linen embroidered with blackwork. Museum number: T.10-1950. Victoria & Albert Museum. https://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O357668/nightcap/

c.1600.     Silk embroidered in silk and metallic yarns, in rainbows design. Museum number: 1962-53-11. Cooper Hewitt, New York. https://www.cooperhewitt.org/2014/02/12/a-little-nightcap/

c.1600. Uncut and part blackwork embroidered nightcap. Museum number: T.9-1950. Victoria & Albert Museum.   https://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O319540/nightcap-panel/


1600-1620. Linen embroidered with black silk and silver-gilt threads. ID Number: 29.132 Burrell collection, Glasgow Museums. (image right) http://collections.glasgowmuseums.com/mwebcgi/mweb?request=record;id=37367;type=101

1600-1620. Linen embroidered with polychrome silk and silver-gilt threads. ID Number:  29.135. Burrell collection, Glasgow Museums. http://collections.glasgowmuseums.com/mwebcgi/mweb?request=record;id=37485;type=101

1600-1620. Linen embroidered with black silk and silver-gilt threads. ID Number: 29.136. Burrell collection, Glasgow Museums. http://collections.glasgowmuseums.com/mwebcgi/mweb?request=record;id=36682;type=101

1600-20. Linen worked with silk and metal threads, and spangles. Accession Number: 64.101.1241. Metropolitan Museum, New York. https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/228950?searchField=All&sortBy=Relevance&ft=64.101.1241&offset=0&rpp=20&pos=1

1600-25. Linen embroidered with polychrome silk and silver-gilt threads. Shakespeare’s Birthplace Trust. http://collections.shakespeare.org.uk/search/museum/strst-sbt-1994-70

1600-25. Linen embroidered with polychrome silk and metallic threads. Los Angeles County Museum of Art. https://collections.lacma.org/node/250323

1600-25. Linen with polychrome and gold and silver embroidery of strawberries, with spangles and silver gilt bobbin lace trim. Museum number: 2016-1899. Victoria & Albert Museum. http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O15344/nightcap-unknown/

1600-25. Linen embroidered with blackwork and silver gilt. Museum number: 198-1900. Victoria & Albert Museum. http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O72529/nightcap-unknown/

1600-25. Linen, embroidered with polychrome and silver-gilt thread with silver-gilt bobbin lace & spangles. Museum number: T.258-1926. Victoria & Albert Museum. http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O73335/nightcap-unknown/

1600-25. Linen, embroidered with silver and silver-gilt thread with silver-gilt bobbin lace & spangles. Museum number: T.75-1954. Victoria & Albert Museum. http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O357046/cap-unknown/

1600-1625. Linen, embroidered mainly in silver and silver gilt thread, with pink, green and gold silk thread. Accession number: 1971.50. Manchester City Museums. https://manchesterartgallery.org/collections/title/?mag-object-7423

1600-1625. Linen, embroidered in black, silk and silver gilt. Accession number: 1972.113. Manchester City Museums. https://manchesterartgallery.org/collections/title/?mag-object-7435

1600-25. Linen embroidered in plaited braids of silver and silver-gilt thread, trimmed with silver-gilt bobbin lace, and with spangles. ID number 42.51. Museum of London. https://collections.museumoflondon.org.uk/online/object/90475.html

1600-25. Linen embroidered in polychrome silks, and silver and silver-gilt thread. ID number 27.117. Museum of London. https://collections.museumoflondon.org.uk/online/object/90472.html

1600-1630. Linen with wide border of needlepoint lace seamed to lower edge. Accession number: 2003.85. Manchester City Museums. https://manchesterartgallery.org/collections/title/?mag-object-14672

1600-30 Linen lining, said to have been worn by Charles I, plain with cutwork or needle-lace trim. ID number: 35.147/3. Museum of London. https://collections.museumoflondon.org.uk/online/object/91437.html

1600-30. Linen embroidered with blackwork. Museum number: 308-1902. Victoria & Albert Museum.  http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O357057/cap-unknown/

1600-30. Linen embroidered with blackwork. Museum number: 1032-1903. Victoria & Albert Museum. https://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O357056/cap-headgear/

1600-1630. Linen embroidered with silver and silver-gilt thread with spangles. Museum number: T15-1925. Victoria & Albert Museum.http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O357052/cap-headgear-unknown/

1600-30. Linen, embroidered with polychrome and silver-gilt thread. Museum number: T.16-1925. Victoria & Albert Museum. https://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O357051/cap-headgear/

1600-1630. Linen, embroidered with black silk, gold thread and gilt spangles. Museum number: 814-1891. Victoria & Albert Museum. http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O357060/cap-headgear-unknown/

1600-30. Linen, embroidered with black silk (almost completely missing) and silver-gilt thread. Museum number: 795-1892. Victoria & Albert Museum. https://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O357059/cap-headgear/

1600-30. Linen, embroidered with green and yellow silk, gilt thread, and green ribbon.  Museum number: T.56-1934. Victoria & Albert Museum. https://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O357047/cap-headgear/

1610-20. Linen, embroidered with silks, silver metal thread and spangles.  Chertsey Museum. https://chertseymuseum.org/search_collection?filter=nightcap&item=14092

1610-20. Linen, polychrome silk and metal threads. Fashion Museum, Bath. The Fashion Museum does not have an online search facility. The nightcap is on their Facebook page

c.1620. Uncut and part polychrome embroidered nightcap. Museum number: T.39-1955.Victoria & Albert Museum. http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O357612/nightcap-unknown/

c.1620. Linen, polychrome silk and metal threads. Sold at Bonhams. https://www.bonhams.com/auctions/24678/lot/139/?category=list

1640-45. Pink silk satin embroidered in silk, silver and silver-gilt threads, with matching slippers (29.144-145). ID Number: 29.133. Burrell collection, Glasgow Museums. (shown left) http://collections.glasgowmuseums.com/mwebcgi/mweb?request=record;id=37208;type=101

1640-60. Red velvet embroidered in metal threads. ID Number: 29.315. Burrell collection, Glasgow Museums. http://collections.glasgowmuseums.com/mwebcgi/mweb?request=record;id=447014;type=101

1650-60.  Quilted white satin. Museum number: 786-1864. Victoria & Albert Museum. https://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O357061/cap-headgear/

1675–1725. Green silk velvet embroidered with gold-metallic thread. Accession Number: 38.1298. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. https://collections.mfa.org/objects/46601/mans-negligee-cap

1675–1725. Light brown silk, embroidered with silks and metallic thread. Accession Number: 38.1308. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. https://collections.mfa.org/objects/46615/mans-cap

1675-1700. Linen in the chinoiserie style, embroidered in black, red, pink and yellow silk, turned up, peaked brim, lined yellow silk and bound with yellow silk ribbon. Accession number: 1952.123. Manchester City Museums. https://manchesterartgallery.org/collections/title/?mag-object-5833

1675-1700. Linen in the chinoiserie style, embroidered in yellow silk, turned up, peaked brim, unlined. Accession number: 2012.82. Manchester City Museums. https://manchesterartgallery.org/collections/title/?mag-object-5833

1675-1700. Linen, embroidered with silk (note museum dating of first quarter 17th century is wrong). Accession Number: 39.145. Metropolitan Museum, New York. https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/101826?searchField=All&sortBy=Relevance&deptids=62%7c8&when=A.D.+1600-1800&what=Costume&ft=cap&offset=20&rpp=20&pos=22

1680-1700. Quilted linen. Object number: NT 1348925. National Trust, Snowshill. http://www.nationaltrustcollections.org.uk/object/1348925

1680-1720. Linen, embroidered over entire surface with yellow silk and coloured silks, lined with blue silk, blue silk turned-back brim trimmed with silver bobbin lace. Accession number: 2003.108. Manchester City Museums. https://manchesterartgallery.org/collections/title/?mag-object-14671

1680-1720. Linen, cotton, with silk embroidery. Accession Number 1951-105-32. Cooper Hewitt Collection, New York. https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18386589/

1680-1720. Cream silk embroidered cross stitch in green silk. Accession Number: 26.231.8. Metropolitan Museum, New York. https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/98367?searchField=All&sortBy=Relevance&deptids=62%7c8&when=A.D.+1600-1800&what=Costume&ft=cap&offset=0&rpp=20&pos=2

1690-1700. Scarlet velvet embroidered in silver and silver gilt, with a spilt point brim. Museum number: T.95-1967. Victoria & Albert Museum. http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O353236/nightcap-unknown/

1700-60. Quilted linen. National Trust, Snowshill. http://www.nationaltrustcollections.org.uk/object/1348924

1700-50. Green silk embroidered in silk. Accession Number: C.I.46.9.224. Metropolitan Museum, New York. (image left) https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/116700?searchField=All&sortBy=Relevance&deptids=62%7c8&when=A.D.+1600-1800&what=Costume&ft=cap&offset=0&rpp=20&pos=20

1700-50. Silk with embroidery. Accession Number: 43.311. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. https://collections.mfa.org/objects/116815/mans-cap

1700-50. Blue silk embroidered with straw. Accession Number: 38.1315. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. https://collections.mfa.org/objects/46627/cap

1700-50. Linen with quilting and embroidery. Accession Number: 1973.486. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.  https://collections.mfa.org/objects/123621/mans-cap

1700-50. Blue silk with silk and metallic-thread embroidery, and metallic-thread lace trim.  Los Angeles County Museum of Art.   https://collections.lacma.org/node/214537

1700-20. Blue silk, embroidered in silk. Object number: NT 1348924. National Trust, Snowshill http://www.nationaltrustcollections.org.uk/object/1348948

1700-20. Scarlet velvet embroidered in silver thread. Object number: NT 1348949. National Trust, Snowshill. http://www.nationaltrustcollections.org.uk/object/1348949

1700-20. Pink silk with metallic embroidery. Accession Number: 43.307. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.   https://collections.mfa.org/objects/116801/mans-cap

1700-20. White satin silk with embroidery. Accession Number: 38.1307. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. https://collections.mfa.org/objects/46613/cap

1700-20. Linen, Italian quilting. Museum reference: A.1979.19. National Museums of Scotland. No image. https://www.nms.ac.uk/explore-our-collections/collection-search-results/nightcap-mans/350820

1700-1725. Linen, backed by coarser linen; turned up brim. Embroidered through both layers in white linen, chiefly in satin stitch, french knots and drawn fabric work. Accession number: 1948.1. Manchester City Museums. https://manchesterartgallery.org/collections/title/?mag-object-5527

1700-1725. Red silk velvet, lined with pale blue spotted silk.  Museum number:T.44-1918, Victoria and Albert Museum.  http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O139654/nightcap-unknown/

1710. Linen with wadded and corded quilting in black.  ID Number:29.140.  Burrell collection, Glasgow Museums. http://collections.glasgowmuseums.com/mwebcgi/mweb?request=record;id=36131;type=101

c.1720. Cream silk with pink silk brim, embroidered with silk threads. Accession Number: C.I.39.13.278. Metropolitan Museum, New York. https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/112625?searchField=All&sortBy=Relevance&deptids=62%7c8&when=A.D.+1600-1800&what=Costume&ft=cap&offset=0&rpp=20&pos=17

1725-75. Cream silk with silk and metallic-thread embroidery, and metallic-thread lace trim.  Los Angeles County Museum of Art. https://collections.lacma.org/node/233262

1725-50. Green silk with silk and metallic-thread embroidery, and metallic-thread lace trim.  Los Angeles County Museum of Art. https://collections.lacma.org/node/246507

c.1730.  Green lampas (silk fabric with a brocading weft). Accession Number 1951-105-31 Cooper Hewitt Collection, New York.  https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18386587/

1740-60. Leather. Object number: NT 1348951. National Trust, Snowshill.  http://www.nationaltrustcollections.org.uk/object/1348951

1740-60. Shot green/yellow silk. Object number: NT 1348950. National Trust, Snowshill.  http://www.nationaltrustcollections.org.uk/object/1348950

1740-50. Red velvet, with turned-up brim and a tassel. Museum number: T.43-1918. Victoria & Albert Museum.  https://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O353241/nightcap/

1740-50. Pale blue silk damask, with turned-up brim and tassel. Museum number: 294-1906. Victoria & Albert Museum. https://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O353247/nightcap/

c.1750. Linen, embroidered with silk, and a silver braid edging. Accession Number: 38.1297. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. https://collections.mfa.org/objects/46598/mans-negligee-cap

1700s. Orangey-red brocaded silk. Accession Number 1952-47-2. Cooper Hewitt Collection, New York. https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18392135/

1700s. Yellow brocaded silk. Accession Number 1951-105-30. Cooper Hewitt Collection, New York. https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18386585/

1700s. Linen embroidered with cotton. Accession Number 1950-19-1. Cooper Hewitt Collection, New York. https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18392133/

1700s. Yellow embroidered silk, with metallic lace trim. Accession Number 1952-47-1. Cooper Hewitt Collection, New York. https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18384431/

1700s. Linen embroidered with whitework and with a tassel. Accession Number: 43.1696. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. https://collections.mfa.org/objects/120485/nightcap

Monday, 5 October 2020

Mittens in the Early Modern

Leather, early 17th century. Met Museum

 Mittens, having a single undivided section for the fingers, usually with a separate part for the thumb,



 appear in archaeological survivals in Europe from as early as the 6th century. (Willemsen, 2015) This looks at some of the survivals from the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, mainly in England.

The earliest mention of the making of mittens in England is a reference to Robertus le Mitenmaker in 1287 Norwich. There are occasional literary references, Piers Plowman, written c.1380, had “twey [two] mytenes, as mete”. Mete in this sense meaning normal or apportioned out. From about the same date Chaucer also mentions mittens in the Pardoner’s Tale, “He that his hand wol putte in this mitayn, He shal haue multiplyyng of his grayn.”

The list of survivals below starts with a 15th century example in the Museum of London, there are at least a dozen of these leather mittens that survive in archaeological finds in Holland.

Adult mittens -leather

15th century – Working man’s leather mitten https://collections.museumoflondon.org.uk/online/object/30439.html

16th century – Working man’s leather mitten - V&A Museum http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O361039/mitten-unknown/

1540s – Two left handed leather mittens were found on the Mary Rose. https://www.flickr.com/photos/leatherworkingreverend/5080238893

Early 1600s – Leather – Brooklyn Museum Costume Collection at The Metropolitan Museum of Art  https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/170542

Adult mittens - nålbindning

1500-1650 - The Åsle mitten, dated using carbon dating. It is made of wool using nålbindning, the remains of the fringe appear to have been in red white and green stripes. http://www.asleta.se/en/kategori/19/asle-mitten.html and https://historiska.se/upptack-historien/artikel/det-bidde-en-tummetott/

The Åsle mitten

 

Adult mittens - cloth

1600 – Black silk velvet mittens, trimmed with black silk fringe and lined with black silk plush, the gauntlets interlined with wool. – V&A Museum http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O163835/pair-of-mittens-unknown/

1600 Crimson velvet mittens with white satin gauntlets, embroidered with silver and silver-gilt thread and coloured silks in a design incorporating flowers, insects, pillars, etc.  – V&A Museum http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O77423/pair-of-mittens-unknown/

1600  Crimson silk velvet mittens with an embroidered gauntlet, National Trust, Dunham Massey- http://www.nationaltrustcollections.org.uk/object/934939

 

Children’s and babies’ mittens

16th century – Child’s mitten – knitted wool with a pattern at the wrist. Museum of London https://collections.museumoflondon.org.uk/online/object/90608.html

16th/17th century – Child’s mitten – knitted wool. Norfolk Museums Accession number: NWHCM : 1961.74.6, not currently on display and no image. http://norfolkmuseumscollections.org/collections/objects/object-591601516.html/#!/?q=mitten

17th century – Baby’s mitten – V&A Museum – no image available https://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O353951/baby-clothes/

17th century – Baby’s mittens – V&A Museum https://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O353952/baby-clothes/

1650-1699 Baby’s mittens, fingerless – V&A Museum https://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O318686/baby-clothes/

1670-1699 Baby’s mittens, fingerless – V&A Museum https://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O319493/baby-clothes/

Friday, 18 September 2020

Love locks and round heads

Men wearing their hair long was one of the big issues for certain Puritans. William Prynne wrote two pamphlets on the subject, The unloveliness of lovelocks in 1628 (1) and A gagge for long hair’d rattle-heads who revile all civill round-heads in 1646 (2). Henry Peacham in the Truth of our times in 1638 spoke of the “proud coxcombe in the fashion, wearing taffeta, and an ill-favoured lock on his shoulder.” (3)

What precisely were they complaining about, well you can see a style in the caricature from around about 1650 (left). In the caricature long locks are brought forward over both shoulders and tied with a ribbon bow, this is an extreme. A single lock, as in the 1634 portrait of Henri II of Lorraine (below left -Anthony van Dyck. Henri II de Lorraine, 1634. Washington DC: National Gallery of Art), was more common, but still considered an affectation. With the single love lock style usually the hair on the left side of the head was grown long, and the right hand side was shorter. You can see this both in the Henri Lorraine portrait, and in the classic Charles I in three positions portrait, also by Van Dyck. (below right)

The hair could just be worn long, though for certain professions it was discouraged, clergymen with long hair were described as “appearing like ruffians in the pulpit”(4), while at Oxford University in 1636 heads of houses were admonished, “to appear nowhere abroad without their caps, and in apparel of such colour and fashion as the statute prescribed, and particularly they were not to wear long hair, nor any boots, nor double stockings rolled down or hanging loose about their legs, "as the manner of some slovens is," nor to wear their gowns hanging loosely, with their capes below their shoulders.” (5)

What constituted long hair, and does it necessarily say anything about the person wearing it? I suppose it depends on your definition of long. Prynne himself wore his hair longer than his ears, though to be fair as his ears had been cut off as a punishment, this was to hide the scars. The fashion for really short hair among the London apprentices was quite short lived. Lucy Hutchinson, even though her husband was of the Parliamentarian party, complained of those whose hair was cut “close round with so many little peaks as was ridiculous to behold” She said that her husband had “a fine thickset head of haire… although the godly of those days, when he embrac’d their party, would not allow him to be religious because his hayre was not in their cut.” (6)

The term roundhead to indicate not simply short hair, but specially cropped hair, appears just before the outbreak of the Civil War. John Rushworth thought the first usage was in 1641, writing: “The House of Commons met on Monday Decemb. the 27th. [1641]... There being three or four Gentlemen walking near, one of them named David Hide a Reformado in the late Army against the Scots..began to bussle and said he would cut the Throat of those Round-headed Dogs that bawled against Bishops (which passionate Expressions [sic] of his, as far as I could ever learn, was the first miniting of that Term or Compellation of Round-heads, which afterwards grew so general). (7) Richard Braithwait in the same year linked the term to William Prynne writing, “Lord, with what pricked up eares, these round heads harken to their oratour Prinner and admire in hearing him.” (8) In 1642 at least four pamphlets were published using roundhead as a pejorative term. (9)

By the time in 1646 that Prynne wrote his “A Gagge”, wigs, that would be worn by men for the next 150 years, were beginning to make their appearance, for as he pointed out, when “peri-wigs at bed time are laid by” their owners are themselves roundheads. (2)

References

1.      Prynne, W. (1628). The Unlovelinesse of Love-Lockes; or, a Summarie discourse, prooving the wearing and nourishing of a locke or love-locke, to be altogether unseemely and unlawfull unto Christians.

2.      Prynne, W. (1646). A Gagge for Long-Hair'd Rattle-Heads who revile all civill Round-heads. [In verse: By W. Prynne.].

3.      Peacham, H. (1638). The Truth of our Times: Revealed out of one mans experience, by way of Essay.

4.      Hall, T. (1654). Comarum akosmia. The loathsomnesse of long haire: Or, A treatise wherein you have the question stated, : Many arguments against it produc'd, and the most materiall arguguments sic for it refell'd and answer'd, with the concurrent judgement of divines bot. Printed by J. Grismond. for Nathanael Webb and William Grantham at the signe of the Bear in S. Pauls Church-yard near the little north door.

5.      'Charles I - volume 330: August 1636', in Calendar of State Papers Domestic: Charles I, 1636-7, ed. John Bruce (London, 1867), pp. 83-109. British History Online http://www.british-history.ac.uk/cal-state-papers/domestic/chas1/1636-7/pp83-109 [accessed 18 September 2020].

6.      Hutchinson, L. (1806) Memoirs of the Life of Colonel Hutchinson, now first published from the original manuscript by the Rev. Julius Hutchinson. London: Printed for Longman, Hurst, Rees, and Orme, by T. Bensley

7.      Rushworth, J. (1692). Historical Collections of Private Passages of State, Weighty Matters in Law, Remarkable Proceedings in Five Parliaments: The third part. 1640-1644. London: Tho. Newcomb.

8.      Brathwait, R, (1641) Mercurius Britanicus, or The English intelligencer. A tragic-comedy, at Paris. Acted with great applause. London

9.      i) The answer to the rattle-heads concerning their fictionate resolution of the Round-Heads. ii) A Description of the Round-head and rattle-head. iii) A dialogue betwixt rattle-head and round-head. iv) An Exact description of a Roundhead, and a long-head shag-poll

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Saturday, 29 August 2020

Jessamy gloves


 Jessamy gloves are perfumed gloves, more specifically they are gloves perfumed with the scent of
jasmine. The art of perfuming gloves appears to have become popular in Italy in the 16th century, there are many legends around this crediting either René le Florentin, who perfumed gloves for Catherine de Medici, or Muzio Frangipani, a man whose existence cannot even be proved. The fashion seems to have been brought to England by Edward de Vere, Earl of Oxford who, on his return from Italy in 1575, presented Queen Elizabeth with a pair of perfumed gloves, John Stow says that for many years this scent was known as the "Earl of Oxford's perfume”. (Stow & Howes, 1631) John Florio’s work, also published in the 1570s, gives translations into Italian of many phrases to use when purchasing gloves in Italy, for example; “These Gloves, are they wel perfumed,” “‘Who hath perfumed them,’ and ‘I will haue them perfumed.’ (Florio, 1578)

Many different perfumes could be used, not just jasmine, Evelyn refers to “Gloves trimm'd, and lac'd as fine as Nell's. Twelve dozen Martial, whole, and half, Of Ionquil, Tuberose, (don't laugh) Frangipan, Orange, Violett, Narcissus, Iassemin, Ambrett.” (Evelyn, 1690) Martial was Louis XIV’s personal perfumier and his gloves were purportedly sold for 30 sous a pair. By 1656 the perfuming of gloves was so common that Louis XIV granted a guild patent, Les Statuts des Maitres Gantiers Parfumeurs.

The giving of perfumed gloves as gifts at weddings, funerals and other special occasions was common in the seventeenth century. When James I visited Cambridge University in 1615, he was presented with “a fair pair of perfumed gloves with gold laces.” (Cumming, 1982) The mother of a groom to be writing about the need to give gloves as presents at the wedding wrote in 1611 that, “I could not get so many women’s Jessamy gloves as wrote for; and at the last was fained to pick upon cordinant [cordovan leather] for men and perfumed kid for women. I had them perfumed better than ordinary that they might give consent.” (Duggan, 2011)

Perfumed gloves could be purchased in England for between 2s 6d and 4s. (Robertson, 1883) The perfuming could be done, or renewed, by the use of pastes, often referred to as butters, as for example “3 Ounces of Jessimy-butter..and 6 pair of Jessimy-Gloves.” (Duffett, 1675), or by the use of powders. In 1655 James Master paid, “for a pound of jessamin pouder and a pa of white gloves 6s 6d” (Robertson, 1886). It may be that the butter and paste were used to perfume leather gloves, and the powder for fabric gloves, but that is conjecture.

Books were published with instructions on how to create and use such perfumes. In 1696 Simon Barbe’s work was translated into English and published as The French Perfumer, it included sections on how scent gloves, part of which is quoted below. (Barbe, 1696)

“The manner of Preparing and Perfuming Gloves.

Clean and Wash your Skins as you have done before; cut and sew your Gloves, then Colour them as you please; if you will Perfume them with other Perfumes, do it before you Perfume them with Flowers, as you'll find hereafter; being thus prepared, put them in a Box, lay in a Bed of Flowers and a Bed of Skins, continue so doing till you have no more Gloves nor Flowers; let them lye in the Box till the next day, for 24 Hours at most, then take them out, dry them in the Air upon a Line for an Hour; rub them after that well, open them and turn them, cover them again with fresh Flowers on the wrong side of the Skin; continue so doing on both sides four or five Days; then rub them, and prepare them again, they will be well Perfum'd. You must Perfume once or twice the Paper you beat them in, lest it should lessen the smell.

 The Gloves and Skins you Perfume with precious Perfumes, as Amber, Musk, and Civet, will be well Perfum'd without any Flowers.

 How to Perfume Gloves or Skins before you Perfume them with Flowers.

Grind on a Marble Stone with a Muller, a Gros (or the eighth part of an Ounce) of Civet, with two or three Drops of Essence of Orange-flowers, or other Flowers made of Ben Oyl, being well mixt together, drop to it a little of Millefleur-water, then grind alone as big as a Small nut, Gum of Adragant dissolved with Orange▪flower-water; after that mix your Civet, dropping a little of the Millefleur-water; continue so doing till it is all well mixt together, then put your Composition in the Mortar; pour more Water in it, stirring it till it is reduced to a quarter of a Pint; then lay your Perfume very even on your Gloves with a Spunge, dry them in the Air upon a Line; being dry, rub them, open them, and Perfume them with Flowers as before.

 Perfumes made with Musk.

Grind upon a Marble Stone two Gros of Musk, with three Drops of Essence of Flowers, as before, and being well mixt, let them lye on the corner of the Marble; then grind half a Gros of Civet, with a few Drops of the same Essence, lay it on another corner of your Marble; then grind as big as a Nut Gum of Adragant dissolved with Millefleur-water, mixt with three or four Drops of Essence of Amber; after that mix them all together very well with the last Water, dropping it gently; and when the whole is well mixt with the Water, put it in a Mortar, pouring more Water, and stirring it with the Pestle, till it is reduced to half a Pint; then rub your Gloves and Skins, and let them dry.”

References

Barbe, S., 1696. The French perfumer teaching the several ways of extracting the odours of drugs and flowers and making all the compositions of perfumes for powder, wash-balls, essences, oyls, wax, pomatum, paste, Queen of Hungary's Rosa Solis, and other sweet waters .... London: Printed for Sam. Buckley.

Cumming, V., 1982. Gloves. London: Batsford.

Duffett, T., 1675. The Mock Tempest; or, the Enchanted Castle.. London: s.n.

Duggan, H., 2011. The Ephemeral History of Perfume: Scent and Sense in Early Modern England. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Evelyn, J., 1690. Mundus muliebris: or, the Ladies dressing-room unlock'd, and her toilette spread. In burlesque. Together with the Fop-Dictionary, compiled for the use of the fair sex.. London: Printed for R. Bentley.

Florio, J., 1578. Firste Fruites which yeelde familiar speech, merie prouerbes, wittie sentences, and golden sayings. Also a perfect induction to the Italian, and English tongues, as in the table appeareth. The like heretofore, neuer by any man published. london: Thomas Dawson, for Thomas Woodcocke.

Robertson, S., 1883. The expense Book of James Master 1646-1676 [Part 1, 1646-1655], transcribed by Mrs Dallison.. Archaeologia Cantiana, Volume 15, pp. 152-216.

Robertson, S., 1886. The expense Book of James Master 1646-1676 [Part 2, 1655-1657], transcribed by Mrs Dallison.. Archaeologia Cantiana, pp. 241-259.

Stow, J. & Howes, E., 1631. Annales, or, a general Chronicle of England; begun by J. Stow ... continued and augmented ... unto the end of ... 1631, by E. Howes.. London: Printed by A. M. for R. Meighen.